Crime scene investigation / by Jacqueline T. Fish, Larry S. Miller, Michael C. Braswell

Author(s): Fish, Jacqueline T
Location:
Retrieving Holdings Information
Subjects: Criminal investigation
Forensic sciences
Formats: Print
Material Type: Books
Language: English
Audience: Unspecified
Edition: 2nd ed
Published: Cincinnati, Ohio : Anderson ; Oxford : Elsevier Science [distributor], 2011
LC Classification: H, HV
Physical Description: xviii, 477 p. : ill. ; 26 cm
Table of Contents: Foreword
Contributors to Crime Scene Investigation
1. Introduction 1
The Role of the Crime Scene Investigator in Forensic Science 2
Jobs and Descriptions 4
Certification and Professional Development 7
Expert Witnesses 9
Ethics and Professionalism 12
Challenges to Forensic Science 13
Physical Evidence and the Crime Scene 15
Associative Evidence 16
Class versus Individual Characteristics 16
Natural Variation 17
Legal Issues and the Crime Scene 18
Search Warrants 18
Admissibility of Evidence 19
Frye v. United States 21
Federal Rules of Evidence 21
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 21
Chain of Custody 22
Documentation 23
Scientific Issues in Crime Scene Investigation 26
Controls 26
Standards 26
Overlapping Roles 27
Discussion Questions 27
2. The First Response 29
The FBI's 12-Step Process 32
Determining the Scope of the Crime Scene 33
Boundaries 33
Multiple Scenes 34
CSI Personal Safety Concerns 35
Restricting Access 43
Interacting with Detectives 44
Initial Walkthrough/Preliminary Assessment of the Crime Scene 45
Identifying Other Resources 46
What's There and What's Not There 48
Family Members 49
Witnesses 50
Suspects at the Scene 50
Final Steps 50
Discussion Questions 51
3. Documenting the Crime Scene 53
Photography 56
Cameras 58
Lenses and Filters 61
Postprocessing of Evidence Photographs 62
Sketches 65
Title Block and Legends 69
Measurements 71
Technological Advances in Measurement 75
Searching the Scene 77
Search Patterns 79
Vehicle Searches 80
Reconstruction 82
Discussion Questions 83
4. Fingerprints and Palmprints 85
Principles of Fingerprints and Palmprints 87
Fingerprints as Physical Evidnce 89
Inked Impressions 89
Elimination Prints 91
Suspect Prints 91
Fingerprinting the Deceased 91
Establishing Identity 93
Latent Fingerprints 94
Locating and Documenting 96
Methods and Techniques of Developing and Collecting Latent Prints 97
IAFIS and Latent Print Examinations 106
Discussion Questions 107
5. Trace and Impression Evidence 109
Trace Evidence 112
Hairs and Fibers 112
Glass, Soil, Paint, and Other Materials 118
Gunshot Residue 123
Trace Evidence Summary 123
Impression Evidence 125
Footwear Impressions 127
Tire Impressions 128
Bitemark Impressions 129
Photographic Techniques 131
Inked Impressions 132
Casting and Lifting Techniques for Impression Evidence 132
Impressions in Snow 134
Discussion Questions 135
6. Body Fluid Evidence 137
DNA Techniques and the Impact of Technological Advances 140
Probative Value 142
Touch DNA 143
Blood 144
Seminal Fluid 146
Saliva 148
Other Body Fluids 149
Urine 149
Vaginal Secretions 149
Sexual Assault---Special Considerations 149
Locating, Collecting, and Preserving Body Fluid Evidence 150
At the Crime Scene 150
From a Victim or a Suspect 152
Condom Trace Evidence 157
Toxicology: Final Thoughts 158
Discussion Questions 159
7. Blood Spatter Evidence 161
The Nature of Blood Spatter Evidence 163
Documenting Bloodstain Pattern Evidence 169
Detecting Invisible Bloodstains 173
Photographing the Scene 174
Interpreting Evidence 175
Discussion Questions 177
8. Firearms and Toolmark Evidence 179
Bullets and Shell Casings 182
Class versus Individual Characteristics 187
Locating, Collecting, Packaging, and Submission of Evidence 190
Trajectories and Measurements 197
Laser Protractor Kit 204
Laser Trajectory Rod Kit 204
Distance Determination 208
National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) 212
Gunshot Residue Testing 212
Serial Number Restoration 213
Toolmarks 215
Testing and Camparison Techniques 216
Discussion Questions 217
9. Arson and Explosives 219
Crime Scene Processing 222
Area of Origin 223
Burn Patterns 223
Impact of Fire Suppression on the Crime Scene 225
Why Investigate Fire Scenes? 226
Covering Up Another Crime 228
Product Reliability 229
Code Violations 229
Motor Vehicle Fire Investigation 230
Collection and Preservation of Arson Evidence 231
Accelerant-Detection K-9 232
Electronic Detectors and Instruments 233
Forensic Light Source/Alternate Light Source 237
Preservation of Evidence 237
Recovery of Burned Bodies 239
Identification Techniques 241
Bomb Scene Investigations 241
Locating and Collecting Evidence of Explosive Devices 245
Post-Blast Investigation Techniques 245
Discussion Questions 247
10. The Electronic Crime Scene 249
Cybercrime---The Internet Age 251
Identity Theft 254
Spyware 255
Internet Crimes against Children 255
Pornography 256
Predators 256
Cyberstalking, Cyberbullying, and Other Harassment 257
Social Networking Sites and "Sexting" 258
Computer Intrusions 259
Scams 261
Processing the Electronic Crime Scene 261
Computer Hardware 265
Individual Computers 265
Network Computers 266
Peripheral Equipment 267
Virtual Evidence 268
Cell Phones 269
Personal Digital Assistants 270
Electronic Pagers 270
Fax and Digital Answering Machines and Caller-ID Devices 271
Digital Crime Scene Analysis 271
Discussion Questions 273
11. Documentary Evidence 275
Procedures for Handing and Recording Evidentiary Documents 278
Investigative Techniques for Examination of Documents 280
Machine-Produced Documents 283
Handwriting Identification 284
Court Acceptance of Documents Examination 291
Scientific Validity and Reliability 292
Handwriting and Forensic Psychology Applications 292
Physical Profiling 293
Age 293
Gender 294
Handedness 295
Literacy and Occupation 295
Physical and Mental Health 296
Behavioral Profiling 297
Forensic Linguistics, Statement Analysis, and Handwriting 301
Questioned Document Case Study 303
Discussion Questions 309
12. Motor Vehicles as Crime Scenes 311
Photography 312
Hit-and-Run Cases 316
Trace Evidence 317
Types of Physical Evidence 317
Collection Techniques 319
Stolen Vehicles 320
Chop Shops 321
VIN Locations 321
Odometer Tampering 323
Processing Exterior Surfaces of Vehicles 323
Latent Fingerprints 326
Trace Evidence 326
Stolen Property 328
Contraband Search 329
Motor Vehicles as Weapons 329
Documenting Injuries 330
Accidental Death---Suicide---Homicide 332
Discussion Questions 333
13. Death Investigation 335
Medicolegal Death Investigation 338
Structure and Bias 340
Authorization 341
The Death/Injury Scene 343
Preparation 343
The Autopsy 345
The Report 348
Death Certification 348
Cause of Death 349
Manner of Death 350
Postmortem Interval 353
Pattern Recognition 359
Natural Deaths 359
Trauma 360
Role of the CSI at Autopsy 376
Identifying Remains 381
Discussion Questions 383
14. Forensic Anthropology, Odontology, and Entomology 385
The Determination of a Skeleton's Age at Death 387
Maturation 388
Degeneration 389
The Determination of a Skeleton's Sex 392
The Pelvis 392
The Skull 392
The Rest of the Skeleton 394
The Determination of Race (Ancestry) and Stature from the Skeleton 395
Anthropometric Measurements 395
Stature: The Estimation of Stature from the Long Bones 396
Odontology 397
Human Dentition 398
The Anatomy of a Tooth 399
Entomology 402
NamUs 407
Discussion Questions 407
15. Documenting the Actions of the CSI 409
Case Files 410
Crime Scene Protocols 412
Releasing the Scene 415
Cross-Contamination 416
The FBI Crime Laboratory 417
Communicating with a Crime Lab 417
Evidence Submittal to a Crime Laboratory 418
Case File Preparation 419
Working with the prosecutor's Office 419
Court Appearance and Testimony 420
Pretrial Preparation 420
Demonstrative Exhibits 421
The Importance of Physical Evidence 421
Ethical Considerations 422
Emerging Trends 422
Discussion Questions 423
Glossary 425
References 439
Index 449
Additional Authors: Miller, Larry S
Braswell, Michael
Notes: ISBN: 9781422463314 (pbk.)
ISBN: 1422463311 (pbk.)
Includes bibliographic references: (439-448) and index
OCLC Number: 655663951
ISBN/ISSN: 9781422463314
1422463311